Despite more hawkish rhetoric from Warsaw, practical cooperation between Poland and China has remained surprisingly unaffected by the outbreak of the war.
The Czech Republic is in the process of revising its policy towards China under the reign of a center-right government. As the country is still a part of the 14+1 format, the issue of continued participation in the platform is naturally part of the review. In spite of that, no (public) assessment of Czech participation in the platform since its inception in 2012 has been conducted. Did the Czech Republic gain anything at all from its engagement with China under this format?
Bucharest has abandoned the erstwhile drive to improve relations with China due to shifting geopolitical alignments and unmet economic expectations, with the bilateral ties now on auto-pilot.
Not so long ago, the 17+1 cooperation format appeared to be expanding and consolidating, admitting an ‘old’ EU member state, Greece, within its ranks. Yet, in a sudden shift, three participants have left the platform over the past year and a half, while others might yet follow. Others, like Romania, seem to be satisfied with keeping the format half-alive out of inertia.